Genetics and Biotechnology

Organisms from all kingdoms possess a set of instructions (genes) that determines their characteristics. These instructions are passed from parents to offspring during reproduction. Students are familiar with simple mechanisms related to the inheritance of some physical traits in offspring. They are now able to begin to understand the molecular basis of heredity and how this set of instructions can be changed through recombination, mutation, and genetic engineering.

The inherited instructions that are passed from parent to offspring exist in the form of a code. This code is contained in DNA molecules. The DNA molecules must be accurately replicated before being passed on. Once the coded information is passed on, it is used by a cell to make proteins. The proteins that are made become cell parts and carry out most functions of the cell.

Throughout recorded history, humans have used selective breeding and other biotechnological methods to produce products or organisms with desirable traits. Our current understanding of DNA extends this to the manipulation of genes leading to the development of new combination of traits and new varieties of organisms.

Introduction to Genetics

How are traits inherited?

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Mendelian Genetics

How can we describe Mendel’s principle of Heredity?

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Monohybrid Test and Dihybrid Test Cross

How do we show, analyze and interpret cross involving one trait?

How do we show, analyze and interpret cross involving two traits?

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The Pedigree and Human Traits

How do we describe changes in patterns of inheritance?

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Gene-Chromosome Theory

How do we describe gene chromosome theory?

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Gene Linkage and Crossing Over

How do we describe Morgan’s experiment on gene linkage?

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Mutation

How does mutation take place?

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DNA Structure and DNA Replication

How do we describe the structure and function of a DNA molecule?

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DNA and RNA

How do we compare and contrast DNA and RNA molecules?

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Protein Synthesis

How do we describe protein synthesis?

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Biotechnology

How do we describe selective breeding and cloning?

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Genetic Engineering

How do we describe genetic engineering and discuss its use in food production and medicine?

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