Reproduction and Development

Species transcend individual life spans through reproduction. Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical offspring. Sexual reproduction produces offspring that have a combination of genes inherited from each parent’s specialized sex cells (gametes). The processes of gamete production, fertilization, and development follow an orderly sequence of events. Zygotes contain all the information necessary for growth, development, and eventual reproduction of the organism. Development is a highly regulated process involving mitosis and differentiation. Reproduction and development are subject to environmental impact. Human development, birth, and aging should be viewed as a predictable pattern of events. Reproductive technology has medical, agricultural, and ecological applications.

Figure_10_05_01-binary-fission-in-proks.jpg

Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction

4.1a Reproduction and development are necessary for the continuation of any species.

4.1b Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies.

4.1b Some organisms reproduce asexually with all the genetic information coming from one parent. Other organisms reproduce sexually with half the genetic information typically contributed by each parent. Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies.

Mitosis and Meiosis

4.1c The processes of meiosis and fertilization are key to sexual reproduction in a wide variety of organisms. The process of meiosis results in the production of eggs and sperm which each contain half of the genetic information. During fertilization, gametes unite to form a zygote, which contains the complete genetic information for the offspring.

4.1d The zygote may divide by mitosis and differentiate to form the specialized cells, tissues, and organs of multicellular organisms.

Picture32.jpg

Male and Female Hormones

4.1e Human reproduction and development are influenced by factors such as gene expression, hormones, and the environment. The reproductive cycle in both males and females is regulated by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.

Female Reproductive System

4.1f The structures and functions of the human female reproductive system, as in almost all other mammals, are designed to produce gametes in ovaries, allow for internal fertilization, support the internal development of the embryo and fetus in the uterus, and provide essential materials through the placenta, and nutrition through milk for the newborn.

Male_pelvic_structures.svg.png

Male Reproductive System

4.1g The structures and functions of the human male reproductive system, as in other mammals, are designed to produce gametes in testes and make possible the delivery of these gametes for fertilization.

Stages of Human Fetus Development

4.1h In humans, the embryonic development of essential organs occurs in early stages of pregnancy. The embryo may encounter risks form faults in its genes and from its mother’s exposure to environmental factors such as inadequate diet, use of alcohol/drugs/tobacco, other toxins, or infections throughout her pregnancy. Text